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Data Centers


Tapping is a layer 1 technique to get access to network traffic without interfering the original traffic and without losing information. The purpose of tapping is monitoring and lawful interception. Depending on the physical situation and different speed requirements (from very slow 2 Mbit up to very fast 100 Gbit links), optical and copper interfaces can be chosen. A network link (connection) has two directions, which means that for 100 Gbit link, the user has to handle up to 200 Gbit. The major issue in tapping a network is not interfering the original traffic. Due to this challenge, it is required to choose a tool which is built with a deep knowledge in layer 1. Several customers are using Cubro’s layer 1 solutions for over a decade.


Cubro’s network packet brokers are capable of steering the traffic in many ways. The tools are passive and are deployed inline behind TAPs. They can be used with or without bypass protection. Steering includes load balancing and traffic tunneling. Cubro supports all major tunnel techniques VLAN, MPLS, GRE, NVGRE, GENEVA, VXLAN. TAP networks can be very complex today, often there are several packet brokers involved. Cubro has systems with more than 1000 ports.


Filtering is another major solution needed to support monitoring applications. Cubro can filter in all 7 layers depending on the equipment. This capability helps the user to save cost because only the relevant traffic needs to be monitored and collected. Cubro NPB supports thousands of filters from 2000 in the smallest unit up to 1 million in the biggest. The amount of filters has no impact on the performance of the unit.


Often specific traffic must be forwarded to specific devices. Cubro products can help to offload the analyzing devices with this filter (separation) capabilities.

Aggregation and filtering

The EX2 is connected to several devices, for instance, span ports. The traffic from various sources can be aggregated to one stream for a monitoring device. This application reduces the overhead associated with each transmission. The appliances can be set up to share the traffic load by load balancing and even filtering the data. This way, only the traffic of interest is sent out to the appliances and it minimizes the possibility of oversubscribing the 1GbE monitor ports.

Load balancing up to multiple 100 G

Load balancing is vital because analyzing and capturing devices are only capable of handling a certain amount of traffic. Cubro helps to load balance the traffic to several devices which share the load. This load balancing is very flexible and supports many ports.

Symmetric load balancing

Symmetric load balancing, or session aware load balancing, is supported on all Cubro G4 Packetmasters at no extra charge. In addition, 10 LB groups with 16 ports are also supported. Symmetric load balancing is a mechanism that interchanges the source and destination addresses to ensure that bidirectional traffic, specific to a particular source and destination address pair flows out of the same member of a trunk group.


500 X 10 Gbit port cross-connect with 400 Gbit non-blocking backbone

  • EX20400 is connected over 4 x 100 Gbit to one EX32100 to build a 500 port 10 Gbit cross- connect
  • The connection is layer 2 transparent
  • To have full control and secure transfer, all traffic is transported in VXLAN tunnels across the system
  • At the output, the VXLAN tunnel head is removed
  • Centralized management

100 Gbit port cross-connect full mash

  • In this application 6 EX32100s are connected to a fully mashed cross connect with 162 available 100 Gbitports (27 per box)
  • The interconnection between the boxes can be done with one link or with two and more depending on the required bandwidth
  • The table below show how many units can be interconnected and how many ports are available

100 Gbit port cross-connect with central unit

  • In this application 6 EX32100s are connected to a central unit with 186 available 100 Gbit ports (31 per box)
  • The interconnection between the boxes can be done with one link or with two and more depending on the required bandwidth
  • The table below shows how many units can be interconnected and how many ports are available

The below screen shot of the management console shows the cross-connect application. The user defines the connected end point and the application finds the best and shortest way to the endpoint. But it is also possible to define a hard-coded way.

By clicking on a point the route is shown as a highlighted path. The application supports any combination of layout, full mesh, central and any combinations and it is self-learning in how the units are connected. Also, we provide any type of traffic statistic.

Copper monitoring

The EX Series can be connected directly in a live copper link 10/100/1000 without TAPs. The user can set up filters and send the traffic out on the 4 x 10/100/1000 Mbit interfaces. This traffic is small enough to be captured with a standard laptop. This function also allows for the traffic to be removed and inserted in the live links.


The EX Series can also work as a media converter from:

  • Copper to Fiber 1 Gbit
  • Copper to Fiber 10 Gbit
  • Fiber 10 Gbit (SM) to Fiber 10 Gbit (MM), 40 Gbit, 100 Gbit, etc.

100 Gbit aggregation

The EX32100 is connected via the Cubro optical TAPs to a 100 Gbit live link.

The aggregation feature combines the traffic of the two directions to one 100 Gbit output for monitoring purposes. Using the filtering capability of the Packetmaster EX32100 a user can select only the portion of the traffic which is needed to solve the network problem.

Monitoring and troubleshooting

The Packetmaster EX48400 supports 4500 layer 4+ filters. These filters can be used to redirect a small portion of the traffic to a low end, in terms of bandwidth, monitoring tool like a PC with Wireshark. The filtered traffic can be used to troubleshoot routing issues on 100 Gbit link. It is also possible to feed several monitoring Probes with specific traffic.

Monitoring and troubleshooting is a vital part of maintaining and running networks. Growth in traffic and increase in the number of applications has made filtering an important feature for troubleshooting. Cubro offers smart filtering in any OSI Layer in line rate up to 100 Gbit session aware and application aware in L 7.

Filtering – 4500 Flow Rules

A total of 4500 flow rules (filters) can be set in the unit.The red dot marked fields can be used as a match for a packet, stand-alone, combined or with wildcards.For IPSrc and IP, Dst supernets are supported.

Available actions after a positive match include –

  • Send out : to one or more ports - even the same as the input is possible.
  • Drop : delete the specific packet
  • Modify : modify specific fields in the matched packets, VLAN, MPLS, MAC SRC, MAC DST, PORT, VLA, Priority and some more
  • Add VLAN : the unit cant aga VLAN on the input to separate the traffic after aggregation
  • Strip VLAN : VLAN can be removed, Q in Q is supported
  • Add MPLS : add an MPLS Tag to a matched packet
  • Strip MPLS : remove an MPLS Tag from a matched packet
  • Stacking of rules : this function gives the option to generate very complex filter rules.

Media Conversion

This function allows the user to select the media by changing the SFP. The unique design also supports CWDM / DWDM and BIDI SFP.

Amplification for monitoring

It is very common to use optical splitters to monitor the traffic in a network, but a splitter also reduces the optical power on the active link. In multimode networks with higher bandwidths (10 Gbit), this could especially cause transmission problems. A Cubro Media Converter 10 G for amplification can help solve this problem.

Conversion of traffic

The user can convert traffic into a usable form, convert on a physical level from copper to fiber interfaces or vice versa. The application also enables a user to convert bandwidth from 10 to 1 Gbit. The user can convert or modify the traffic so that the tools can handle it, removing tunnels or removing labels like VLAN and MPLS.

With the 10Gb ports on the EXA products, it is possible to convert the traffic from a Mobile Core Network to 1Gb so that a conventional PC with Wireshark can be used. The 10Gb traffic can be converted to 1Gb and also filtered down to one specific mobile user for capture by the tool.

Layer 7 Filtering for troubleshooting

VoLTE SIP filtering (with S1-MME/S1-U interface input)

VoLTE RTP/RTCP filtering (with S1-MM/S1-U interface input)

This application helps to troubleshoot VoLTE traffic in a mobile network. It is available on all EXA models.